Sydney, capital of New South Wales, is Australia’s largest city, chief port, and main cultural and industrial center. Manufactures include ships, refined oil, chemicals, textiles, and automobiles. Sydney Harbour and Port Botany are the main ports. Founded as a penal colony in 1788, Sydney is Australia’s oldest settlement. Its population surged during the Australian gold rushes of the 1850s. Sydney replaced Melbourne as the nation’s largest population center after World War II. Landmarks include the Sydney Harbour Bridge (1932); the Gladesville Bridge (1964); the modernistic Sydney Opera House complex (1973); and the Centrepoint Tower (1981), Australia’s tallest building. The city has several universities and museums, including the National Gallery of Art and the Australia Museum.